The Cars of Canada

The following guide to early Canadian automobiles was first put together by Richard K Doyle and appeared in the March/April 1980 Vintage Vehicles of Canada. The guide is Canadian, which means that cars produced in Canada by subsidiaries of US firms have not been included. These subsidiaries include such well known makes as Ford, Oldsmobile, Rio, Schact, Hupmobile, Willys-Overland, Studebaker, and Dodge.  As well autos sometimes considered Canadian but were in fact built in the US are not included such as the Earl and Republic. The original article text is in black, newer or other information in green.

If you are the copyright holder of any of the photos on this page and don't wish to have it on the website contact the webmaster and it will be removed. Otherwise thank you for your contribution to Canadian automotive history

All reasonable steps have been taken to clear copyright on this article, however if the reader has new information for us we will be grateful.

ACME 1910-11 or 1912 Acme Motor Carriage and Machinery Co. Ltd., Hamilton, Ont. A 30 hp touring car; Hamilton-made bodies and U.S. mechanical parts. Production quantity unknown.  
AMHERST 40 1911-12 Two-in-One Company, Amherstburg, Ont. A seven- passenger touring car designed in Detroit, which could be converted to a pickup truck by removing the rear seat. Only about 3 built; was shown at the CNE in Toronto in 1912.

Amherst 40 HP shown as a car and a truck

For more information The Walker Motor Car Co.

ANHUT 1909-1910 Chatham, Ont. Production was probably limited to a few prototypes, based on the American model.  
BARTLETT 1914-1917 Canadian Bartlett Automobile Co. Ltd., Toronto and Stratford, Ont. Production of over 200 tourers and roadsters, and up to 400 trucks. The first seven cars had Northway engines; the balance had Le Roi engines. The later cars were a composite of different U.S. parts, ie. Kelsey wheels, McCord radiators, Britnell frames, Allis-Chalmers electrical systems, etc.  
BELCOURT 1866 On 24 June 1866, Father Georges-Antoine Belcourt, the same
man who baptized Louis Riel, brought a single-seated steam wagon to Rustico,  P.E.I. The local press never bothered to find out who made it or where it  came from, so it is lost to history.

More information here Untitled Document    The article indicates this was a US made steam wagon and it should not be included on this list. It is credited though with the first traffic accident in Canada and the Taylor steam buggy (below) the second.

BELL 1916-1918 Barrie Carriage Co. Ltd., Barrie, Onto About twenty 4-door touring cars and roadsters were built, with U.S. Lycoming engines (4 cyl) and bodies built in Barrie. 

More information here

BENNETT 1905 Essex, Ont. Only one model, resembling a 1904 Oldsmobile, was built by Albert Bennett. Also called Alfred Bennett

More information here 1908

BIRMINGHAM FLEXIBLE AXLE SIX 1922 Birmingham Motors Corporation, Peterborough, Ont. Production quantity unknown; probably based on the U.S. Birmingham.  
BOURASSA 1899-1926 H.E. Bourassa, Montreal, Que. Bourassa built a one-cylinder ~ runabout in 1899, then a succession of Iarger cars to order, each different, culminating in the Bourassa SIX prototype In 1926. Production probably minimal as each car was made to order.  
BRISCOE 1916 The Canadian Briscoe Motor Co. Ltd., Brockville, Ont. Production quantity unknown; probably based on a French car made in the U.S. Four and eight cylinder models available.

Based on the US Briscoe the company was formed from the Brock Atlas Co. more information History of the Brockville Atlas Automobile Company

BROCK SIX 1921 Brock Motors Ltd., Amherstburg, Ont. Only one car produced; the chassis was moulded in Orillia.

More information here Brock Motors

BROCKVILLE ATLAS 1911-1915 Brockville Atlas Auto Company, Brockville, Ont. Production not known, but up to 100 may have been built. Five models, C, D, E, F and G were available. Most parts were imported from the U.S. with bodies built in Brockville by Canada Carriage Company.  More information here Brockville add
BROOKS 1923-1926 or 27 Brooks Steam Motors Ltd., Stratford, Ont. About 300 of this all-Canadian car were produced, in one model only, which sold for $3885. The twenty-one gallon 600 lb. pressure boiler produced enough steam for up to 500 miles.

More information here

Wikipedia Article  Brooks Photos

Brooks Add

CANADA 1911 Canadian Motors Ltd., Galt, Ont. Forerunner of the Galt. Two models, Canada Tourist and Canada Roadster. A number of cars were produced before the name change.  
CANADA BABY CAR 1914 Canadian Baby Car Co., Montreal, Que. A two cylinder air cooled cyclecar in three models; J.A.P., DeLuxe and Wizard (referring to their engines). Production quantity unknown.  
CANADIAN 1921 Colonial Motors Ltd., Walkerville, Ont. The "All Canadian Car"
was designed by E.G. Gunn. Quantity not known.
CANADIAN STANDARD 1912-1913  Canadian Standard Auto and Tractor Company, Moose Jaw, Sask. A few model s were produced but not for commercial sales. The large touring cars were entirely built in Moose Jaw and with American parts (see also Moose Jaw Standard).   My understanding is that this company never produced any cars, the railway upset two boxcars of parts in transit and the city withdrew all financial support. The company went bankrupt,  the assets were sold and later became the Moose Jaw Standard see below.        


CASE 1907 Lethbridge Motor Car Co., Lethbridge, Alta. Preceded the U.S. Case. The Model A was an open five passenger tonneau model selling for $2000. Extent of production is unknown.  
CHATHAM 1907-1908 or 09 Chatham Motor Car Company, Chatham, Ont. Between 75-100 of this four passenger open touring car were produced. Was exhibited at the 1908 Toronto Auto Show. 1908 model
CLINTON 1911-1918 Clinton Motor Car Co. Ltd., Clinton, Ont. The firm built mainly open trucks with chain drives and solid rubber tires, but exhibited at the 1912 Toronto Auto Show a "Clinton Combination" (a five passenger open car) and a touring model, the Clinton Pleasure Car. Extent of production unknown.  
COMET 1906-1908 Comet Motor Company, Montreal, Que. An open 4-5 passenger car which used an Italian 4 cyl motor. Between 50-200 were produced; it was exhibited at the 1907 Montreal Auto Show, priced at $5000  
CONTINENTAL   (see Moose Jaw Standard)  
CROW 1915-1918 Canadian Crow Motor Co., Ltd., Mount Brydges, Ont. Production of about 100 four-door touring cars and roadsters with Lycoming engines. Bodies were assembled in Mount Brydges.

Crow Pinback

DART 1913-1914 or 15 Dart Cyclecar Co., Toronto, Ont. Production quantity of this . cyclecar is unknown; parts were made in Detroit  
DAVIS 1923-1924 Davis Dry Dock Co. Ltd., Kingston, Ont. One or two touring cars were built, and resembled the contemporary Locomobile.  
DERBY 1924-1926 or 27 Derby Motor Cars Limited, Winnipeg, Man. (headquarters) and Saskatoon, Sask. (assembly). Up to 200 were built, and models included a touring phaeton, a roadster, a touring and a sedan. Based on the U.S. Davis. Derby article1             Derby article2  
DICKSON/FETHERSTONHAUGH ELECTRIC 1893 Dickson's Carriage Works, Toronto, Ont. A single electric car was produced for F .B. Fetherstonhaugh. Exhibited at the 1893 Toronto Fair.  
DOHERTY 1897 Sarnia, Ont. Two vehicles were produced by Thomas Doherty.  
DOMINION 1910-1911 DOMINION-1910-1911. Dominion Motors Ltd., Walkerville, Ont. Originally called the Royal Windsor, the limited production four cylinder, 35 hp auto was . shown at the 1910 CNE.
DOMINION 1914 Dominion Motor Car Co., Coldbrook, N.B. Never started
production, but built a few prototypes. Took over the Maritime Motor Company (see Maritime Singer Six). 
DUPLEX 1923 United Iron Works Company, Montreal, Que. The company claimed a record for fuel economy with their four cylinder sedan. Extent of production unknown.  
EVERY DAY 1910-1912  Woodstock Automobile Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Wood- stock, Ont. This 2 cylinder, shaft driven high-wheeler sold for $750, as did its companion, a light delivery wagon called the Oxford. Quantity not known.  
FALCON 1921  Gove Motor Car Co., Tilbury and Thorold, Ont. Extent of production not known. Was set up by a U.S. company to manufacture a Falcon Light Six  
FLEETWOOD KNIGHT 1924 Kingston, Ont. A single 6 cylinder, 3 speed transmission auto was produced by L.J. Davis.

A roadster and sedan were built

The builders reminisence and specifications

FORSTER 1920-1922 Forster Manufacturing Co., Montreal, Que. A three-passenger coupe, a five-passenger sedan and a seven-passenger limousine may have been produced in very limited quantities.  
FOSS 1897 Sherbrooke, Que. George Foss built the first gasoline driven buggy in Canada. The one cylinder chain driven machine had a top speed of 12 mph.  
FRONTENAC 1931-1933 Dominion Motors Ltd., Toronto, Ont. The Frontenac Six was a sedan with a one year or 10,000-mile warranty. A four cylinder model was also available. Both used an American-built motor. Extent of production unknown.

More information here  Frontenac (automobile) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

GALT 1911-1915 Canadian Motors Ltd., Galt (1911-1913) and Galt Motor Co., Galt, Ont. (1913-1915). Followed the Canada Tourist and Canada Roadster. Several models were produced, roadsters and five-passenger touring; also had electric starters, and produced as well a storage-gas-electric model. A few hundred were sold before the company went bankrupt. Hybrid History Gault Add
GAREAU 1909-1910 Gareau Motor Co., Montreal, Que. Only three 4 cyl. touring cars were produced.  
GILSON 1920-21 Gilson Manufacturing Co., Guelph, Ont. Three touring cars were begun, but only two were completed.  
GLEN 1921-1922 Scarborough, Ont. This limited production 3 cyl air cooled cyclecar was shown at the 1922 CNE.  
GLOVER 1908 Pincher Creek, Alta. W.R. Dobbie bought $8,000 worth of auto parts in Chicago, and assembled one car he called a Glover. The machine had a fifth wheel driven by a chain, supposedly to help dig out the car when stuck.  
GRAMM 1913 Gramm Motor Truck Co., Walkerville, Ont. Mainly a truck manufacturer, the firm produced a few 2 cyl. air cooled cyclecars.  
GRAY 1905 Chatham, Ont. One steam engine converted into a gasoline engine powered buggy, built by William Gray (of Gray Dort) for his own amusement.  
GRAY DORT 1915-1925 Gray-Dort Motors Ltd., Chatham, Ont. Undoubtedly one of the most popular and successful of Canadian cars, about 26,000 were sold before the company went out of business. Numerous models were produced, all of high quality, but costs fluctuated widely: the 1918 Gray Dort sold for $945, the 1919 touring was $1275 and a 1921 sedan went for $3000.

More information here

Wikipedia Article

GUY 1910-1911 Matthew Guy Carriage and Automobile Co., Oshawa, Ont. Only a few 30 hp touring cars and one-ton trucks were produced.  
HAMBRECHT 1907 Berlin (Kitchener, Ont.). Herman Hambrecht built one chain- driven auto with a rear-mounted engine.  
HARDING 1911 Harding Machine Co., London, Ont. A few 20 hp, 4 cyl. 2 seater runabouts were produced.

Harding Add

IMP 1913 Holden-Morgan Company Ltd., Toronto, Ont. A few 2 cyl cyclecars were produced, probably related to the 1913 IMP .produced in Auburn, Indiana.  
IROQUOIS 1906 Iroquois Motor Car Manufacturing Co. of Canada, Weiland, Ont. Proposed to build 30 hp and 40 hp five-passenger models, but probably no significant production.  
IVANHOE 1903-1905 Canada Cycle and Motor Company, Toronto, Ont. A number of electric cars were produced. The battery weight was balanced evenly over the front and rear wheels.  
JULES 30 1911-1912 Jules Motor Car Co. Ltd., Guelph, Ont. Only two complete cars were made. It claimed less than 500 parts, against 1700 or so for other contemporary cars.  
KEETON 1912-1915 Keeton Motors Ltd., Brantford, Ont. Limited production touring car; earliest was a 6 cyl, 48 hp; latterly Keeton was a 35 hp 4 cyl 5 passenger touring car. From Automobiles to Washing Machines, A combined history of Keeton Motors, Limited, Motor Trucks, Limited and Blue Bird Corporation, Limited - Brantford, Ont. Book available see Brant County website  
KELLY STEAM BUGGY 1884 Blyth, Ont. J.B. Kelly built one 2 passenger steam buggy.  
KENNEDY 1909-1911 Kennedy Motor Co. Ltd., Galt (headquarters) and Preston (factory), Ont. About 175 of their 2 and 4 passenger models were produced with variances such as 38" solid rubber tires on one and 30" pneumatic tires on another.  
LA MARNE 1921 Anglo-American Motors Ltd., Toronto (headquarters) and Trenton (assembly), Ont. At least one prototype was built, which was shown at the 1921 CNE; a seven-passenger limousine with an eight cylinder in-line motor and an aluminum body.  
LAVOIE 1923 Lavoie Automotive Devices Ltd., Montreal, Que. Only a pilot was built, but plans for future models were highly impressive.  
LEADER 1901-1902 The Leader Manufacturing Co., Toronto, Ont. Extent and nature of production not known.  
LEDOUX 1914 Ledoux Carriage Company Ltd., Montreal, Que. Two models with aluminum bodies were built by H.E. Bourassa  
LEROY 1899-1902 Leroy Manufacturing Co., Berlin {Kitchener), Ont. Advertised as completely Canadian, 32 one cylinder 4 hp gasoline cars were produced by the Good brothers. The brake pedal was also the back-up pedal, which was frustrating for most Leroy owners!  
LOCOMOBILE 1902 National Cycle and Automobile Company, Hamilton, ant. Undoubtedly a relative of the U.S. Locomobile, this steam car had a boiler which needed refilling every 20 miles. Very limited production.  
LONDON SIX 1921-1924 or 25 London Motors Ltd., London, ant. About 100 were produced; sedans, roadsters, convertibles and Canada's first hardtop convertible. Customers had a choice of selecting a plain, painted or cloth covered finish on the wooden frame built by an Ingersoll casket maker.  
MARITIME SINGER SIX 1913-14 Maritime Motor Company Ltd., Saint John, N.B. Based on the American Palmer-Singer, only four or five 6 cyl 50 hp cars were produced; none remain.

Maritime Singer Add

The Maritime Singer Six photo courtesy Steve Belyea who presently owns and has restored the original factory building. His grandfather Walter Sherwood was the lead shop mechanic


MARTIN 1905-1910 Martin Carriage Works, Chatham, Ont. Four or five cars were produced.  
MAXMOBILE 1900 Watford, Ont. D.A. Maxwell built a single 3 passenger gas buggy in his blacksmith shop and it apparently ran about 25 years.  
McKAY 1910-14 Nova Scotia Carriage Co., Kentville, N.S., and Nova Scotia Carriage and Motor Car Co., Amherst, N.S. The production of 150 automobiles was a boon to the Maritimes, and included 30 and 40 hp models. They were assembled from American parts and locally made bodies.

McKay Photo  McKay History  McKay Financial

McLAUGHLIN 1908-1922 McLaughlin Motor Car Co. Ltd., Oshawa, Ont. The first McLaughlin was produced in 1908; mechanically it was like the contemporary Buick, but the body was Canadian. By 1922 almost 70,000 cars were produced, including a full range of 4, light 6, and standard 6 cylinder models. McLaughlin bodies were of much higher quality than the U.S. Buick. The company was sold to GM in 1918, but it wasn't until 1923 that the name changed to McLaughlin Buick (in 1942 to Buick only) and the car became essentially identical to its U.S. counterpart.  Western Libraries article McLaughlin History  GM Canada Production 08-73 GM Canada Model F restoration R S McLaughlin Centre Bio. Photos 1908-19
MENARD AUTO BUGGY 1908-1910 Windsor Carriage and Delivery Wagon Works, Windsor, Ont. 1908-1909, and Menard Auto Buggy Co., Windsor, Onto 1909- 1910. A few highwheeled, 2 cyl, 16 hp auto buggies were produced  
MERCURY 1921 Canadian Automobile Corporation, Lachine, Que. Extent and nature of production not known.  
MOOSE JAW STANDARD 1917 Canadian Standard Auto Tractor Co., Moose Jaw,
Sask. (sometimes known as the Continental). Only five cars were built, one for each director of the firm.
MOTTETTE 1900-1903 Canadian Motors Ltd., Toronto, Ont. Three wheeled electric; quantity unknown.  
NEFF 1899 Humberstone, Ont. Benton Neff built a two passenger steam car.  
OXFORD 1913-1915 OXFORD-1913-1915. Oxford Motor Cars & Foundries Ltd., Montreal, Que. Four and six cylinder models were produced from American components. Extent of production not known.  
PARKER 1921-1923 Parker Motor Car Co. Ltd., Montreal, P.Q. Only a handful of these 6 cyl 70 hp cars were built, including a seven passenger touring, a seven passenger sedan and a four passenger sport model. They were originally announced as "Royals".  
PECK 1911-1913 Peck Electric Ltd., Toronto, Ont. A number of coupes and road- sters were produced, with chain or shaft drive and wheel or tiller steering. A model was exhibited at the 1912 Toronto Auto Show.  
QUEEN 1901-1903 Queen City Cycle and Motor Works, Toronto Ont. Only one 2 passenger, one cylinder car was built. It was one of the first in North America to have a steering wheel.  
REDPATH MESSENGER 1898-1903 Toronto and Berlin-Guelph area. The wooden body was made in Toronto and the running gear assembled near Berlin (Kitchener). Three of the one cylinder 4 cycle machines were produced.  
REGAL 1914-1917 Canadian Regal Motor Co., Berlin (Kitchener) Ont. 4 cyl Lycoming engine and a V8 engine as well. About 200 were produced.  
REGAL 1910 Walkerville, Ont. (no connection with the above Regal). A very limited production 4 cyl. 4 cycle runabout.  
ROBERTS SIX 1921 Canadian Automobile Corp., Lachine, Que. Several body styles planned but probably only one prototype built.  
ROSS 1911-1914 Ross Motor Car Company Ltd., Toronto, Ont. In 1912, two cars were displayed at the Toronto Auto Show-a coupe and a sedan. No further production.  
RUSSELL 1905-1915 Canada Cycle & Motor Co., and Russell Motor Car Co. Limited Toronto, Ont. With the Knight engine, the Russell was one of the most popular Canadian cars, and certainly its foremost luxury car. Many different models were offered, and production was in the thousands.

Legion Magazine article   Manitoba Antique Auto Museum Article      Book on the Russell   Canadian Driver Article  Western Library article Russell Add


SAGER 1910-1911 United Motors Ltd., Welland, Ont. Plans were for production of 300 cars per year, roadsters and touring but it is not known if more than a handful were completed.    
SHAMROCK 1904 Wardsville, Ont. Wm. Minna produced 2 one cylinder gas buggies.   
STILL 1899-1900 The Still Motor Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ont. Still built a 5 hp, 300 lb. air cooled engine; the car sold for $750. Quantity unknown. The company was succeeded by Canadian Motors Ltd. (see Mottette).    
SUPERIOR 1910 Petralia, Ont. W. English produced, in his wagon shop, about 60 open cars with a steel body over a wood frame, and Atlas engines. With the rear seat in, they were cars-without, trucks.    
SWIFT 1911 Swift Manufacturing Co. of Canada Limited, Chatham, Ont. Only one prototype is known, based on the U.S. Anhut.    
TATE 1912-1913 Tate Electrics Ltd., Windsor, Ont. A number of electrics were built, including coupes, roadsters, delivery vans and trucks.   
TAYLOR STEAM BUGGY 1867 Stanstead, Que. Henry S. Taylor constructed one steam buggy with tiller steering and a wood-fired steel boiler.

Royal Canadian Mint article   A Canadian coin and stamp have been issued

TUDHOPE 1908-1913 Tudhope-Mclntyre Co., Orillia, Ont. (1908-1909) and Tudhope Motor Company Limited, Orillia, Ont. 1910-1913. Several thousand Tudhopes were produced; 2, 4 and 6 cylinders. Electric starting and lights, spare tires and windshields were standard equipment in the later models. The company changed its name to the Fisher Motor Co. in 1913 and devoted itself to war supplies and auto bodies.

Western Libraries article  VCCCA article


TURNBULL 1851 Saint John, N.B. On 31 January 1851 Thomas Turnbull ran a machine through the streets of Saint John at speeds of up to 30 mph. The car has disappeared, and the newspapers of the day provided few details, so one can only surmise it was powered by a system of fly wheels.    
VICTORIAN 1896-1900 Hopewell, N.S. One or two 2 cyl two passenger buggies with iron tires, tiller steering and chain drive were built. 
VINOT 1912-13 Vinot Car Co. of Canada, Montreal, Que. Quantity produced unknown, but a 35 hp seven passenger touring car was exhibited at the 1912 Montreal Auto Show.   
WALKER 1910 Walker Motor Co., Walkerville, Ont. A planned 6 cyl touring and roadster; no evidence that it was actually built.    
WEL-DOER 1912 Welker-Doerr Co., Berlin (Kitchener), Ont. Only one produced, a 2 cyl cyclecar designed to run 50 mpg and up to 50 mph.   
WINDSOR, ROYAL WINDSOR   (see Dominion)  
WINNIPEG 1920-1923 Winnipeg Motor Cars Ltd., Winnipeg Man. Up to 500 cars were produced, touring, sport and sedan models with 4 cyl. engines. The frame and radiator were made in Winnipeg. Related Derby article
WRIGHT 1929 Montreal, Que. Benjamin Wright produced one model of a Wright Flexible Axle touring car